For Immediate Release
Washington, DC – September 21, 2018 – Dear Chairman Alexander, Ranking Member Murray, Chairwoman Foxx, and Ranking Member Scott:
The undersigned 633 organizations urge you to swiftly reauthorize of the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (FVPSA), our nation’s only dedicated source of funding for domestic violence shelters and supportive services. While FVPSA has been expired since 2015, there is now bipartisan legislation in both the Senate and House to reauthorize it. We respectfully request that you take up and pass the FVPSA Reauthorization Act of 2018 (S. 2784/H.R. 6014) before Congress adjourns for the year. We thank Senators Heller (R-NV), Casey (D-PA), Grassley (R-IA), Coons (D-DE), and Cornyn (R-TX) and Representatives Thompson (R-PA), Moore (D-WI), Blunt Rochester (D-DE) and Stefanik (R-NY) for their timely leadership.
Domestic violence is pervasive, costly, and can be deadly. More than 1 in 3 women have experienced rape, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner in their lifetime. In addition to emergency shelter, victims report needing medical care, housing services, counseling and supportive services, and many also report missing work or school as a direct result of the abuse. Many survivors of violence must flee their homes in order to find safety. Nationwide, an average of 3 women are killed by a current or former intimate partner every day.
FVPSA is at the heart of our nation’s response to domestic violence and was first passed into law in 1984. Funds authorized under FVPSA support formula grants to every state and territory based on population, as well as funding for Native American Tribes and Alaska Native Villages for community-based programs. FVPSA funds also support programs that enhance services to abused parents and their children, state domestic violence coalitions, and a network of capacity-building resource centers to build capacity to improve intervention and prevention efforts.
In FY 2017, FVPSA-funded over 1,600 local public, private, nonprofit and faith-based organizations across the country serving approximately 1.3 million women (71.5%), men (7.1%) and children (21.4%). These programs provided such critical services as emergency shelter, counseling, crisis lines, safety planning, legal assistance, and housing advocacy, as well as preventative education to millions of adults and children. The National Network to End Domestic Violence releases an annual report entitled Domestic Violence Counts: A 24-hr National Census of Domestic Violence Services (Census). The 2017 Census revealed that in just one day, more than 72,245 victims of domestic violence received services, and 11,441 requests for services went unmet due to lack of funding and resources. Of those unmet requests, 65% were for safe housing.
Another important element included in FVPSA is the authorization of the National Domestic Violence Hotline (‘the Hotline’), which provides free and confidential support, referrals, and connections to the most comprehensive resource database in the country, with over 4,800 service providers in the U.S, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands and Guam. Over the last 21 years, the Hotline and its Loveisrespect support line for youth dealing with dating abuse have answered more than 4 million calls, texts, and chats from survivors seeking support around domestic and dating abuse.
FVPSA funding has also been critical to underserved and marginalized communities. For example, the Hotline partners with the National Indigenous Women’s Resource Center to operate the StrongHearts Native Helpline. American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) communities experience some of the highest rates of domestic violence in the United States and survivors often have limited access to Native-centered supportive services. The StrongHearts provides vital culturally appropriate, confidential services for AI/AN victims of domestic violence and dating violence.
The importance of FVPSA cannot be overstated: these funds help ensure that victims have a place to turn when faced with dangerous violence and abuse from an intimate partner. Domestic violence programs are cost-effective and lifesaving programs that save and help rebuild lives. Two multi-state studies published in 2009 and 2011 documented that the nation’s domestic violence shelters and non-residential programs are addressing both urgent and long-term needs of victims of domestic violence and are helping victims protect themselves and their children. As study participant reported, “This program saved my life. I had no place to go, no money. I now have a job, apartment, and I am learning how to get over my fears. I don’t have nightmares anymore thanks to counseling.”
We are experiencing a watershed moment in our country as survivors of gender-based violence are coming forward after living in the shadows for years, even decades. Our message to survivors must be clear: when you come forward for help and support, it will be available to you.
We urge Congress to immediately reauthorize FVPSA, by passing the bipartisan H.R. 6014/S. 2784. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact Michelle Mitchell (email@example.com), Qudsia Raja (firstname.lastname@example.org), or Kiersten Stewart (email@example.com).
Thank you for your continued leadership in keeping victims safe and healthy. We know our successes could not be achieved without your support, and we are grateful for all that you do.
100+ Women Who Care Santa Cruz Chapter
A Change Would Do You Good, LLC
A New Hope Center, Inc.
A New Leaf
Abuse & Rape Crisis Shelter of Warren County
Abuse Prevention Council
Access California Services
Adult Protective Services after hours
Advancing Justice-Asian Law Caucus
Advocacy & Resource Center of Sheridan, WY
Advocacy Center of Tompkins County
Advocate Safehouse Project
Advocates for Responsible Care (ARxC)
Advocates of Lake County
Advocates to End Domestic Violence
AGAPE Child Development Center
Agnes’ Centers For Domestic Solutions
Aid to Victims of Domestic Abuse (AVDA)
Alabama Coalition Against Domestic Violence
Alaska Native Women’s Resource Center
Alaska Network On Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault
Alexandra House, Inc.
Alliance Against Family Violence and Sexual Assault
Alternatives to Domestic Violence
Alternatives to Violence of the Palouse
American Medical Student Association
Angela’s Piazza:Women’s Drop-In Center
Anna Marie’s Alliance
Apna Ghar, Inc. (Our Home)
Arab-American Family Support Center
Arizona Coalition to End Sexual and Domestic Violence
Arizona South Asians For Safe Families
Ashe Community Paramedic Program
Ashe County DSS
Ashe County Partnership for Children – A Safe Home for Everyone
Ashe Family Literacy-Wilkes Community College
Asian American Psychological Association
Asian Human Services of Chicago
Asian Law Alliance
Asian Pacific Development Center
Asian Services In Action
Asian Task Force Against Domestic Violence
Asian/Pacific Islander Domestic Violence Resource Project
Atascosa Family Crisis Center, Inc.
AVDA| End Abuse/Begin Again
Barren River Area Safe Space, Inc.
Bastrop County Women’s Shelter, dba Family Crisis Center
Battered Women’s Justice Project
Battered Women’s Shelter
Battered Women’s Shelter of Summit & Medina Counties
Bay Area Turning Point
Becky’s Place Haven of Hope Corp.
Bergen County N.J. Alternatives to Domestic Violence (ADV)
Bingham Crisis Center
Boston Area Rape Crisis Center
Brain Injury Association of America
Break the Cycle
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Brio Performance Solutions, LLC
Cal Family Law Group, PC
California National Organization for Women
California Partnership to End Domestic Violence
California Women’s Law Center
Calvert County Crisis Intervention Center
Cameron Housing Authority
Canyon Creek Services
Capital Area Family Violence Intervention Center
CARE of Atchison County MO
Casa de Esperanza: National Latin@ Network for Healthy Families and Communities
Casa de Misericordia
Casa Myrna Vazquez, Inc.
CASA of Oregon
Cascade County Attorney’s Office
Catherine Cobb Safe House
Catholic Community Services Yuma
CAWS North Dakota
CCS Safe House
Center for Abuse and Rape Emergencies, Inc.
Center for Civil Justice
Center for Family Violence Prevention
Center for Hope and Safety
Center for Nonviolence, Inc.
Center for Safety & Change, Inc.
Center for Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence Survivors
Center for Women in Transition
Center on Halsted
Centre Co. Women’s Resource Center
Chicago Women’s AIDS Project
Child Care Services Association
Children’s Defense Fund – Texas
Christos House, Inc.
Church Women United in New York State
Church Women United of Rochester & Vicinity
Citizens Against Domestic & Sexual Abuse – Island County
Citizens Against Domestic Violence – Lake of the Ozarks
Citizens Against Spouse Abuse, Inc.
Clallam County Prosecuting Attorneys Office
Clallam County Target Zero Program
Clear Creek County Advocates
Coalition Ending Gender-Based Violence
Coalition for Asian American Children and Families (CACF)
Coburn Place Safe Haven
Cogswell Hall, inc.
Columbus Alliance for Battered Women, Inc. d/b/a Hope Harbour
Comal County Family Violence Shelter, Inc.
Committee Against Domestic Abuse (CADA) Inc.
Community Action Agency of Somerville, Inc.
Community Against Violence (CAV)
Community Alternatives to Violence
Community Housing of Maine
Community Resource Center
Community Support Center of Southwest Montana
Compass Center for Women and Families
Comtrea – A Safe Place
Connecticut Coalition Against Domestic Violence
Consolidated Agencies of Human Services
Council on Domestic Violence Inc.
Council on Families in Crisis
Crime Victim and Sexual Violence Center – Albany County
Crime Victims Treatment Center and New York State Downstate Coalition for Crime Victims
Crisis Call Center / SASS Program
Crisis Center of Comal County
Crisis Center of Dodge City, Inc.
Crisis Center of the Plains
Crisis Center of West Texas
Crisis Center, Inc.
Crisis Intervention Service
Crook County Family Violence
Cumbee Center to Assist Abused Persons
Custer Network Against Domestic Abuse, Inc.
D.A.R.T. (Domestic Abuse Resistance Team)
Day One – New York
Day One – Rhode Island
DC Coalition Against Domestic Violence
DC Volunteer Lawyers Project
Deaf Overcoming Violence through Empowerment (DOVE
Delaware Coalition Against Domestic Violence
Denton County friends of the family
Disability Law Center
District 4 Human Resources Development Council
District Alliance for Safe Housing, Inc (DASH)
Division of Indian Work
Doctors for America
DOMESTIC ABUSE PROJECT INC
Domestic Abuse Project of Delaware County
Domestic Abuse/Sexual Assault Services
Domestic and Sexual Violence Services – MT
Domestic Violence Association of Central Kansas
Domestic Violence Intervention of Lebanon County, Inc
Domestic Violence Intervention Program – Iowa City
Domestic Violence Intervention Services, Tulsa (DVIS)
Domestic Violence Intervention, Inc.
Domestic Violence Service Center, Inc. – Luzerne and Carbon Counties
Domestic Violence Services of Benton & Franklin Counties
Domestic Violence Services of Snohomish County
Domestic Violence Services of Southwestern Pa
DOVES of Big Bear Valley, Inc.
Durham Crisis Response Center
East Side Neighborhood Services
East Texas Crisis Center, Inc.
Eastlake Police Victim Assistance
Eastland County Crisis Center
Eastside Neighborhood Services
El Refugio, Inc.
Elko Committee Against Domestic Violence
Empower Yolo, Inc
End Domestic Abuse WI
End Violence Against Women International
Englewood Community Connection Outreach Corp
Equality North Carolina
FAITH Social Services
Family & Children’s Service of Niagara
Family Abuse Shelter of Miami Co. Inc.
Family Advocates, Inc.
Family Crisis Center of San Juan County
Family Crisis Center of the Big Bend
Family Crisis Center, Inc – Great Bend, KS
Family Crisis Center, Inc. – Mineral, Grant, and Hampshire Counties
Family Crisis Center, Inc. – Northeast Arkansas
Family Crisis Centers, Inc. – Northwest Iowa
Family Crisis Council of Rowan, Inc.
Family Crisis Resource Center, Inc.
Family Services Inc – Hudson Valley
Family Services Incorporated
Family Services of Tulare County
Family Services, Winston-Salem NC
Family Support Services of Amarillo
Family Violence Appellate Project
Family Violence Prevention Center of Greene County
Fannin County Family Crisis Center
Fayetteville NC Chapter of NOW
First Baptist Church, Tarkio, MO
Florida National Organization for Women
Forks Abuse Program
Franciscan Shelters dba Bethany House
Freedom Network USA
Freedom’s Rest Family Violence Center
Friends of the Family
Friends of Yates, Inc
Futures Without Violence
Gateway Family Services, Inc.
General Federation of Women’s Clubs
Georgetown University Law Center Domestic Violence Clinic
Georgia Advancing Communities Together, Inc.
Georgia Coalition Against Domestic Violence
GIA COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION
Girls Inc. of the Pacific Northwest
Governor Advisory Commission on Latino Affairs – PA
Governor’s Advisory Commission on African American Affairs – PA
Guam Coalition Against Sexual Assault & Family Violence
Haitian Neighborhood Center, Sant La
HAVEN – Bozeman, MT
HAVEN – Oakland
Haven Women’s Center of Stanislaus
Hays-Caldwell Women’s Center
HEALING HEARTS & FAMILIES
HEART Women & Girls
HELP of Door County
Helping Services for Youth & Families
Henry Street Settlement
Hi-Line’s Help for Abused Spouses
Highland Lakes Family Crisis Center
Hoke County Domestic Violence & Sexual Assault Center
Home Free Shelter and Community Program
HOPE of Ogle County
HOPES CAP, Inc.
House of Hope
House of Ruth
Housing Corporation of Arlington
Houston Area Women’s Center
HUTCHINSON COMMUNITY FOUNDATION
Idaho Coalition Against Sexual & Domestic Violence
Illinois National Organization for Women
Illinois Valley Safe House Alliance
Illinois-Iowa Center for Independent Living
Independent Living Center of the Hudson Valley
Indiana Coalition Against Domestic Violence
International Association of Forensic Nurses
Iowa Coalition Against Domestic Violence
Iris House, Inc
Jacksonville Area National Organization for Women
Jane Doe Inc., the Massachusetts Coalition Against Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence
JCTOD Outreach, Inc. (dba) Johnson Park Center
Jeff Davis Communities Against Domestic Abuse
Jefferson City Rape & Abuse Crisis Service
Jewish Family Service Association of Cleveland
Jewish Family Service of Los Angeles
Jewish Family Service of Seattle
Joan G. Lovering Health Center
Kansas Coalition Against Sexual and Domestic Violence
KARAMAH: Muslim Women Lawyers for Human Rights
Kendall County Women’s Shelter
Kentucky Coalition Against Domestic Violence
King County Sexual Assault Resource Center
Kingman Aid to Abused People
Lake County Committee on Family Violence
Las Cruces Police Department-Victim Assistance Unit
Latinas Unidas Por Un Nuevo Amanecer (L.U.N.A.)
License to Freedom
Life Source Consultants
Lorton Community Action Center
Louisiana Coalition Against Domestic Violence
Lydia’s House, Inc.
Madison-Area Urban Ministry
Maine Coalition to End Domestic Violence
Martin County Sheriff’s Office
Maryland Network Against Domestic Violence, Inc.
Matagorda County Women’s Crisis Center
Metro Centers for Community Advocacy
Metropolitan Organization to Counter Sexual Assault
Michigan Coalition to End Domestic & Sexual Violence
Mid-Minnesota Women’s Center
Mid-Shore Council on Family Violence, Inc.
Middle Way House
Milwaukee Center for Children and Youth
Minnesota Coalition for Battered Women
Mississippi Center for Justice
Mississippi Coalition Against Domestic Violence
Missouri Coalition Against Domestic and Sexual Violence
Monsoon Asians & Pacific Islanders in Solidarity
Montana Coalition Against Domestic & Sexual Violence
Montgomery County Dept. of Health & Human Services
Mosaic Family Services
Mount Graham Safe House
Muslims of Central PA
My Sister’s House
National Advocacy Center of the Sisters of the Good Shepherd
National Association of Social Workers-Texas Chapter
National Center on Domestic and Sexual Violence
National Clearinghouse for the Defense of Battered Women
National Coalition Against Domestic Violence
National Coalition for the Homeless
National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges
National Domestic Violence Hotline (NDVH)
National Housing Law Project
National Human Services Assembly
National Network for Youth
National Network to End Domestic Violence
National Organization for Women – Greater Birmingham Chapter
National Organization of API Ending Sexual Violence
National Resource Center on Domestic Violence
National Youth Advocate Program, Inc.
Nebraska Coalition to End Sexual & Domestic Violence
NENC Career Pathways
Nevada Coalition to End Domestic and Sexual Violence
New Choices Inc.
New Day Advocacy Center
New Horizons Shelter and Outreach Centers, Inc
New Jersey Association on Corrections PC/CC women’s center
New Life Center
New Mexico Coalition Against Domestic Violence
New York State Coalition Against Domestic Violence
NH Coalition Against Domestic and Sexual Violence
NM Asian Family Center
Noah Project Inc.
NorCal Services for Deaf & Hard of Hearing
North Carolina Coalition Against Domestic Violence
North Country Center for Independence
Northern Marianas Coalition Against Domestic and Sexual Violence
Northwest Georgia Family Crisis Center
Northwoods Battered Women’s Shelter
Oak Park River Forest Food Pantry
Oasis Shelter Home, Inc.
Oasis/Family Resource Center
Office of Peace, Justice, and Ecological Integrity, Sisters of Charity of Saint Elizabeth
Ohio Domestic Violence Network
Oklahoma Women’s Coalition
Oneida Crisis Center
Options of Burke County
Options of Northwest Kansas
Options, Inc. Domestic and Sexual Abuse Services
Orange County Women’s Health Project
Oregon Coalition Against Domestic and Sexual Violence
Ounce of Prevention Fund
PA Coalition Against Domestic Violence
PA Coalition Against Rape
PA Governor Wolf’s Commission on Asian Pacific American Affairs
Pacific Island Knowledge 2 Action Resources (PIK2AR)
Partners Behavioral Health Management
Peace House, Inc
Peaceful Families Project
PeaceWorks, Inc. dba Mountain Peace Shelter
Pennsylvania Commission for LGBTQ Affairs
Pennsylvania Commission for Women
Pennsylvania Council of Churches
Pennsylvania Head Start Association
Pennsylvania Immigrant and Refugee Women’s Network (PAIRWN)
People’s Place II, Inc.
Pershing County Domestic Violence Intervention INC
Personal and Family Counseling Services
Pickens County Advocacy Center
Pinellas County Domestic Violence Task Force
Pinellas NOW (National Organization for Women)
Priest River Ministries
Project Woman – Ohio
Public Health Advocates
Public Health Management Corporation
Putnam Northern Westchester Women’s Resource Center
Rainbow House Domestic Abuse Services
Rape Crisis Center of Medina & Summit Counties
Rape/Domestic Abuse Program
Raphael House of Portland
REACH Beyond Domestic Violence, Inc.
Regional Family Crisis Center
RI Coalition Against Domestic Violence
Rise Above Violence
RISE San Luis Obispo County
Rivers of Hope
Rocky Mountain Children’s Law Center
Ross County Coalition Against Domestic Violence
S.A.F.E. House, Inc.
Safe + Sound Somerset
Safe Harbor of NE KY
Safe Haven of Greater Waterbury
Safe Haven of Person County
Safe House for Women
Safe Nest: Temporary Assistance for Domestic Crisis
Safe Passage Domestic Violence Shelter and Crisis Intervention Center
Safe Shelter of St. Vrain Valley
Safehouse Crisis Center, Inc
Safehouse Progressive Alliance for Nonviolence
Safelight, Inc. dba Mainstay, Inc.
Sakhi for South Asian Women
Salem County Women’s Services
San Diego Volunteer Lawyer Program, Inc.
San Joaquin County NOW
Sanders County Coalition For Families
Sandhills Crisis Intervention Program Inc.
SARC – Harford County
Sargent Shriver National Center on Poverty Law
Schenectady (NY) Community Ministries
Serenity House of Clallam County
Sewa – Asian Indian Family Wellness
Sexual Assault Response Services of Southern Maine
Sexual Trauma Awareness and Response (STAR)
Shelter Agencies for Families in East Texas
Shelter From the Storm
Shenandoah Women’s Center
Sikh Family Center
Sisters of Charity – Halifax (US Region)
Sisters of Charity Federation
Sisters of Charity of Nazareth Congregational Leadership
Sisters of St. Joseph of Rochester
SLV Immigrant Resource Center
Sojourner Project, Inc
Soroptimist International of Elko
South Asian Helpline and Referral Agency
South Carolina Coalition Against Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault
South Hutchinson Police Department
Southeast Advocates for Family Empowerment
Southern Ohio Task Force on Domestic Violence
Southern Valley Alliance for Battered Women
Southwest Crisis Center
St. Bernard Battered Women’s Program, Inc.
St. Landry-Evangeline Sexual Assault Center
St. Martha’s Hall
St. Peter’s Kitchen
Stepping Stones, Inc
STEPS to End Family Violence
Stop Abusive Family Environments, Inc. (SAFE)
Sullivan County Victim Services
Sure Helpline Crisis Center
Survival Adult Abuse Center Inc
Tacoma Community House
Tahoe SAFE Alliance
TCM-Domestic Violence Services
Tennessee Coalition to End Domestic and Sexual Violence
Tewa Women United
Texas Council on Family Violence
Texas Muslim Women’s Foundation
The ARK Domestic Violence Shelter
The Center for Family Justice
The Community Responders Network & Gather the Spirit for Justice
The Domestic Violence Center of Grays Harbor
The DOVE Project
The DOVES Program
The Gathering Place
The Haven Family Shelter
The James House
The John Leary Organization
The Justice for Girls Coalition of Washington State
The Mahoney House
The Outer Banks Hotline, Inc.
The Rape Crisis Center of Medina and Summit Counties
The Resource Connection
The Richstone Family Center
The Salvation Army
The Shelter for Abused Women & Children
The United Methodist Church — General Board of Church and Society
The Wellspring Alliance for Families, Inc.
The Willow Domestic Violence Center
The Women’s Center, Inc. of Columbia/Montour
The Women’s Law Center of Maryland
Time Out, Inc.
Trafficking and Exploitation Action Network
Transformative Counseling, LLC
Transitions of PA
Tri-County Council on Domestic Violenc
Tri-County Help Center, Inc.
Tri-Valey Haven, Livermore, CA
Turning Point for Women and Families
Turning Point, Inc.
Ujima Inc: The National Center On Violence Against Women in the Black Community
Union County Council on Aging Inc.
Unitarian Church of Harrisburg
United Way of Southeast Louisiana
University of Miami School of Law
URGE: Unite for Reproductive & Gender Equity
Vera House, Inc.
Vermont Network Against Domestic and Sexual Violence
Victim Outreach Intervention Center
Victims Resource Center – Northeast PA
Victims’ Intervention Program
Vietnamese Initiatives in Economic Training – VIET
Violence Free Colorado
Virginia Poverty Law Center
Virginia Sexual & Domestic Violence Action Alliance
Voices Against Violence
Voices of Hope
Volunteers of America Colorado Branch
Washington State Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WSCADV)
Webster County Victims Assistance Program
West Virginia Coalition Against Domestic Violence
Western Youth Network
Whole Health Outreach
WI Alliance for Women’s Health
Winnemucca Domestic Violence Services
WISE & Healthy Aging
Wise County Domestic Violence Task Force
Witness to Mass Incarceration
Women & Children First: The Center Against Family Violence
Women Against Abuse-Philadelphia PA
Women Helping Women
Women In Need, Inc.
Women’s Center-High Desert, Inc.
Women’s Center-Youth & Family Services
Women’s Institute for Freedom of the Press
Women’s Law Project
Women’s Research And Education Fund
Women’s Resource Center of Lackawanna and Susquehanna Counties
Women’s Resource Center of Newport and Bristol Counties
Women’s Resource Center of West Virginia
Women’s Services, Inc.
Women’s Shelter of South Texas dba The Purple Door
Women’s Center & Shelter of Greater Pittsburgh
Women’s Center of East Texas
Working Against Violence for Everyone
Wyoming Coalition Against Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault
Young Feminists & Allies: National Organization for Women’s (NOW) Inaugural Virtual Chapter
YWCA Bradford Victims’ Resource Center
YWCA Clark Couny
YWCA Great Falls
YWCA Greater Austin
YWCA Lewiston, ID-Clarkston, WA
YWCA Mahoning Valley
YWCA Mercy Home
YWCA Metro St. Louis
YWCA Nashville & Middle Tennessee
YWCA North Orange County
YWCA Oklahoma City
YWCA Pierce County
YWCA San Diego County
YWCA Sauk Valley
YWCA Seattle King Snohomish
YWCA Silicon Valley
YWCA St. Joseph
YWCA University of Illinois
YWCA Upper Lowlands
YWCA Wheeling, WV
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 Lyon, E., Lane, S., & Menard, A. (2008). Meeting survivors needs: A multi-state study of domestic violence shelter experiences. Final report prepared for the U.S. National Institute of Justice. Harrisburg, PA: National Resource Center on Domestic Violence; Lyon, E., Bradshaw, J., & Menard, A. (2011). Meeting survivors’ needs through non-residential domestic violence services and supports: Results of a multi-state study. Final report prepared for the National Institute of Justice. Harrisburg, PA: National Resource Center on Domestic Violence.
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